Autonomy: People have the right to control what happens to their bodies. Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Galen. In the 1350s, the average life expectancy was perhaps 30-35. ." ; At that point, people were pointing out a bunch of … The medical faculty at the University of Paris, to take the most extreme example, became more radically Galenist during the course of the sixteenth century, to the legal exclusion of competing theories and therapies. Adult learning theories play a pivotal role in the design and implementation of education programs, including healthcare professional programs. … These events would be accompanied by dissections of various kinds of animals—a sheep, pig, or pregnant dog, for example—to enable greater understanding of human anatomy through comparison of similar parts. Supporters of the medical model consequently consider symptoms to be outward signs of the inner physical disorder and believe that if symptoms are grouped together and classified ��� . Controversies arose between the two kinds of medicine. While some humanists were reviving Galen’s methods of anatomical and physiological research, others were seeking to emulate Hippocratic medicine, with its attentiveness to the individual patient’s clinical manifestations. Medicine for this group was defined by an intimate knowledge of classical Greek theories about health and disease that was conveyed principally in the works of antiquity’s greatest medical writer, Galen (second century C.E). Source: Paracelsus, Four Treatises of Theophrastus von Hohenheim called Paracelsus. specializations, professionalization and theories in medical sociology Medical sociology is a field of study that has assumed new dimensions and specialties in modern times. Health and Wholeness "Medical Theory and Practice Trepanation is a fancy word for drilling holes in your head. Chemical Malfunctions. His demand that one must travel to learn must have been old already, but appealed to his sixteenth-century followers, who took up his cry to abandon books and seek the knowledge of medicine from alchemy and other experiential sciences; by talking to artisans and peasants, rather than reading the books of Galen and Aristotle. Conclusions. The corner-trumpeters wear chains and silk: the wanderers can scarcely pay for ticking [straw for a mattress]. [CDATA[ There has been an increase in the use of varied���and often confusing���terminology in Should I then be blamed because I have wandered among my Mineralia and learned the temper and heart, and grasped in my hands the art of those who teach me to separate the pure from the dross, by which I anticipated much evil? Those within the walls have it cold and warm according to their wishes; those in the arts, were it not for a tree, would have no shade. The concept behind this theory is that the sudden, widespread change in human girth... Alzheimer’s Disease is a Form of Diabetes. People with sun damage to their skin are much less likely to develop MS than people with no sun damage. INTRODUCTION Many conspiracy theories relate to clandestine government plans and elaborate murder plots. So close was the connection between theoretical medicine and natural philosophy that the Greek terms for nature (physis) and natural philosopher (physiologos) caused the term physicus to replace medicus for the educated physician, resulting in the modern usage of the terms physician and physiology in a predominantly medical sense. Now where the Mineralia lie, there are the artists; if a man wish to seek out artists in the analysis and preparation of nature, he must seek them in the place where the Mineralia are, How then can a man find out the preparation of nature, if he does not seek it out where it is? Read into this list of social psychology theories put together here just for you. View more Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Theories and Models There are several theories and models that support the practice of health promotion and disease prevention. During the 16th, 17th and 18th century there was steady progress in the field of anatomy and in surgery. 2. on which persuasion techniques are based. Grouped by type: Motivation: Basic systems that get us … A theory of how and why people choose to make healthy choices in their lives. Such an imbalance was not regarded as a symptom of disease, but rather as the disease itself. The need for various techniques stems from the different types of problems, personalities, and situations that may occur, which often requires personalized treatment. Cadavers were provided by the municipal or royal governments, which arranged to have condemned criminals executed at an appropriate time so their bodies would be fresh for the scheduled dissections. Bleeding patients with acute fevers seems particularly misguided from a modern standpoint, but the loss of an appreciable amount of blood would have cooled and calmed the medieval and early modern patient, giving relief from the symptoms, if not actually curative. Blood was wet and hot, phlegm was wet and cold, yellow bile was hot and dry, and black bile was cold and dry. First, the high level of ancient Greek medicine was recovered with Galen’s theoretical and therapeutic system. The functionalist perspective, also called functionalism, is one of the major … Emergence of Modern Science. How to use theory in a sentence. there is thought to be a physical cause. Each of these four fluids was associated with a pair of the four basic qualities that Aristotle had defined as fundamental to material substances—hot, cold, wet, and dry. . The theories described are Parson’s theory of the sick role, Suchman’s theory regarding the stages of illness and medical care and Mechanic’s general theory of health-seeking. The Paracelsians, or chemical physicians, viewed diseases as the result of specific chemical processes or malfunctions of natural, healthy chemical processes that took place at specific locations in the body, rather than as imbalances, and they sought to correct them by administering chemical drugs to restore the body’s normal, healthy chemistry. Second, his anatomical expertise was surpassed, providing the means to wholly revise understanding of the body and its operations. Vivian Nutton, ed., Medicine at the Courts of Europe, 1500-1837 (London & New York: Routledge, 1990). This site provides researchers with summarized information on A. Greece and Rome. Pages in category "Obsolete medical theories" The following 25 pages are in this category, out of 25 total. Physician and Physiology. This connection is crucial for understanding the nature of elite medicine in the Renaissance and Reformation as well as the importance medicine as a field had for the development of natural philosophy and thus the emergence of early modern science. Wherefore, as the things now mentioned must be experienced, they belong to us Parabolanis [doctors who attended patients in their homes] and are bound up with medicine and not to be separated from it. Please also opt me in for Exclusive Offers from Beliefnet’s Partners, From time to time you will also receive Special Offers from our partners. Therapeutic Approaches. This situation was especially true in rural areas and provincial towns where M.D.s were rare. The physician first sought to rebalance the patient’s fluids by adjusting his or her diet and lifestyle (regimen), in an attempt either to diminish those fluids that were in excess or to supplement those that were deficient. Explanatory Coherence. The first job of the physician was to know the patient’s normal constitution and evaluate the various factors that may have affected it in order to determine if he or she were imbalanced and in what way. . . Escape Theory. For the arts have no feet . Epistemological Weighting Hypothesis. This theory presents an alternative to both the conventional bio-medical approach, as well as the bio-psycho-social-spiritual approach of other theories and nursing models. What I think is going on is this: "The medical model" is a term for how we conceptualize illness, and the definition has changed over time. Spiritual Elements. Mmm…Mercury”. Medical institutions can take such beliefs more seriously, rather than just dismissing them as fringe. Mmm���Delicious urine. Encyclopedia.com. MEDICINE, ALTERNATIVE. World Eras. Ethical theories represent the grand ideas on which guiding principles are based. Medical Information; Bizarre Medical Practices ; 10 Of The Most Bizarre Medical Practices And Theories Urine therapy . 7 Shocking Medical Theories Obesity is Caused by a Virus. Influence of Hippocrates. These are: * Medical model * Sociological model * Psychological model * Feminist model I will now go on to describe the different models of child abuse, and also evaluate them aswell. Even in 1600 there were few professional opportunities for those engaged in scientific research or teaching, other than in philosophy and medical departments at the universities or the practice of medicine. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates. Definition Sound like a particularly … Scripture is explored through its letters; but nature from land to land. Sadly, social scientists have at times used theories simply to attack medicine, not to improve medical practice. THEORIES OF MEDICINE IN THE 18TH CENTURY . For example, we know that tuberculosis is caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and that scurvy is caused by a deficiency of vitamin C. Efforts to educate the public about critical thinking, scientific methodology, and how the institutions of medicine work and are regulated, might reduce the popularity of such conspiracy theories. A few decades ago, medical sociology began to face greater challenges because of the increasingly complex dimensions of … Recovery of these texts was uneven, with the therapeutic and general-theory treatises reaching Western readers before the research-oriented anatomical and physiological works, owing in part to Islamic emphasis on therapy and disinterest in anatomical knowledge for its own sake, beyond what was required for surgery. The regular practice of dissection gradually spread to northern Europe in the course of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, and by the mid seventeenth century the foremost human anatomists were to be found in Copenhagen, Leiden, Amsterdam, Stockholm, London, Paris, Oxford, and several of the universities in Germany, as well as in the traditional medical strongholds of northern Italy. – explain the concepts and theories of health that are most common in health and related professions – identify key theories that underpin concepts of health – identify different theories of health used by different professions – distinguish between inequity and inequality – understand the social gradient in health. Moreover, having blood let was probably less stressful than another surgical treatment, the use of caustic chemicals or hot iron rods to cauterize the skin and thus heat and dry the body. The system was extraordinarily complex, taking into consideration many factors that were idiosyncratic, such as one’s profession (students and scholars tend to be naturally melancholic, that is, rich in black bile), the positions of the planets at one’s birth, the time of the year one became ill, which part of the body was affected, and so on. The TicWatch S is powered by Google Assistant. The application of drugs to the outside of the body as oils, salves, and poultices, for example, was commonly regarded as the province of the surgeon, even if they were being used to heal such diseases as leprosy, syphilis, and plague, and although internal medicine was in theory left to the physician, in reality practices overlapped. Bloodletting was so common that it was even used as a preventative, along with diet, and patients would ask to be bled in the spring, in anticipation of an outbreak of plague, and at other times they deemed healthful. . Explanations > Theories . Concluding Remarks As should be clear at this point, I consider the construction and employment of models and theories essential to medical science in the way they are widely recognised to be in the natural and biological sciences. The principles address the issue of fairness, honesty, and respect for fellow human beings. Efforts to educate the public about critical thinking, scientific methodology, and how the institutions of medicine work and are regulated, might reduce the popularity of such conspiracy theories. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites: http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html. . Equity Theory. World Eras. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list. Now he who would serve the belly, he follows me not; he follows those who go in soft raiment, although these are unfit for wandering. On the one hand, university medicine moved closer to Galen’s ideal, as new texts from Galen’s formidable medical scholarship were discovered and better translations were printed and absorbed into the curriculum. Thus it is also necessary that the physician be an alchemist: if now he desire to be one, he must see the mother from whom grow the Mineralia, Now the mountains go not after him, rather must he go after them. The utilitarianism approach requires that you decide what course of action needs to be done and evaluate the outcomes of each action. Definitions of basic concepts Before we begin our discussion, the clarification of a few basic research concepts is helpful. Trepanation. Table 1 lists the proportions of Americans who report having heard of 6 popular Click on the plus sign in a box to drill down to related more specific medical concepts, click on the concept name to see the encyclopedia entry for that concept.Within an entry, you can double-click a word to look up its entry, or drag and drop terms from other windows. Stay Fit With This Powerful Fitness Motivation Tool. . Katherine Park, Doctors and Medicine in Early Renaissance Florence (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1985). Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list. Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Each addresses a value that arises in interactions between providers and patients. In late-sixteenth-century Paris, for example, chemical physicians were banned by the university, which controlled medical practice in the city, but were supported by the French crown and found employment at royal institutions and in aristocratic households. Cannon���s Theory 6. Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. It uses a s…, Herbalism, Western The Psycho-Analytic Theory (Freud) 7. It is true, those who do not thus, have more than those who do: those who sit in the chimney-corner eat partridges and those who pursue the arts eat a milk-soup. The medical model of mental illness treats mental disorders in the same way as a broken arm, i.e. These theories are related to the tourists dependency of moving from one place to other in terms of leisure, medical services, business purpose etc. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Endowment Effect. Galen had insisted that a proper physician be well versed in philosophy, particularly that of Aristotle, and this approach suited medieval readers, who wished to develop medicine from the mere craft of healing, handed down by apprenticeship, into a learned profession. ••• Vesalius insisted that people should dissect diligently and look for themselves rather than rely on written authorities alone. Type a word to look up medical concepts or drugs beginning with that word, or browse the concept tree, left. Andrew Wear, Roger French, and Iain Lonie, eds., The Medical Renaissance of the Sixteenth Century (Cambridge & New York: Cambridge University Press, 1985). Empathy-Altruism Hypothesis. . Encyclopedia.com. According to this system, an old man, for example, would naturally be drier and colder than a young man, who would have a warmer and moister temperament, or natural constitution. The practice of elite medicine was intrinsically conservative and did not change much from the time of Galen until the nineteenth century, nor was it. Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. Recommendations for additions to the list are welcome. Some of the most famous scientific theories include the theory of heliocentrism, the theory of evolution by natural selection, the quantum theory, the theory of general relativity and the theory of special relativity. This is a list of conspiracy theories that are notable. MEDICAL THEORIES AND MEDICAL SCIENCE IN THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY Few periods in history have surpassed the Eighteenth Century in violent and extravagent contrasts. The care of children is as old as our species, but the discipline of pediatrics emerged barely a century ago. As is shown in the article on classification of diseases, this was often based on symptoms rather than underlying diseases. And for the sake of brevity, the theories presented here have been vastly simplified. Proponents of nursing theory, in contrast, attempt to develop a conceptual structure which offers a more humanistic approach … Although true clinical teaching in the modern sense was not developed until the early nineteenth century, the ideals and rhetoric of patient-oriented medicine were being touted by renowned physicians such as Jean Fernel in the mid sixteenth century and provided a needed corrective to what had become an overly elaborate, theory-dominated medicine of the university-educated Galenists. Everything About Obamacare Is A Conspiracy. Conservatism. Network theory explains that “mental disorders arise from direct interactions between symptoms” (Borsboom, 2017). The first of these is a vigorous defense of his novel medical ideas, which were ridiculed by contemporary court physicians, titled The Reply to Certain Calumniations of His Enemies or Seven Defences. It’s hard to find a more controversial subject than … SOME MEDICAL THEORIES Before examining various accounts of what theories are, it is useful to review some important examples of medical theories. Family therapy is used to approach issues among family members. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Galen’s medicine was based on theories of health and disease that were handed down from the earliest medical writers, the Hippocratic physicians, but supplemented by the extensive anatomical and physiological researches carried out at the Museum of Alexandria during the Hellenistic period (the third and second centuries B.C.E.). These multiple streams of medical thinking flowed together to reshape medical theory in early modern Europe. The most famous of these men were Jacques Dubois (Sylvius) and Johannes Guinter of Andernach, whose student Andreas Vesalius is credited with surpassing Galen and drawing attention to the fact that there was still much to be discovered through dissection. This list may not reflect recent changes (). Islamic medicine did not view knowledge of the anatomy of cadavers as useful to healing the living, and Galen’s anatomical research was not incorporated into their teaching, beyond what applied directly to surgery. Other Options. Conspiracy theories usually deny consensus or cannot be proven using the historical or scientific method and are not to be confused with research concerning verified conspiracies such as Germany's pretense for invading Poland in World War II. Such is the Codex Naturae; thus must her leaves be turned. translated by C. Lilian Temkin and others, edited by Henry E. Sigerist (Baltimore: Joans Hopkins University Press, 1941), pp. A medical theory such as the bacterial theory of tuberculosis provides good explanations at both the general and individual levels. Chemical medicine was consequently shunned by Paris-educated physicians, while often adopted by those with degrees from the University of Montpellier, in southern France, and by apothecaries and surgeons. In cases where blood was in excess, as evident by fevers, inflammation, and skin lesions, which were thought to indicate the body’s natural attempt to get rid of excess and corrupt blood, balance was restored by the removal of blood by one of several methods, the most drastic of which was venesection, the cutting of a vein to let out some blood. The three major assumptions about human becoming are meaning, rhythmicity, and transcendence. Sometimes these mandatory dissections included male and female cadavers for comparison. In a world characterized by frequent mortality at any age in life, and lacking adequate record keeping, medical care and longevity could not easily be correlated. This approach was a very different way of conceptualizing diseases and conflicted with Galen’s theory. Brief description of the medical theories of the 18th century. Ancient and Medieval. This will enhance the development of knowledge, skills, and positive attitudes in their learners, and improve the next generation of teachers. This process was regarded as a surgical procedure, the third form of chemical therapy, and was routinely practiced by surgeons or barbers in the Renaissance. As time went by, chemical drugs were slowly adopted by Galenist physicians, too, although their application was given new explanations that were consistent with Galenic theory. ." These drugs were used alone as “simples” or were compounded together according to recipes, and used either to alter the body’s qualitative balance directly or else to promote vomiting (emetics), excretions (purgatives), sweating (sudorifics), and various other real or imagined means of evacuating excess fluids and restoring balance. Women were naturally colder and moister than men and therefore had more phlegm (were phlegmatic) in a state of health, although old women were as a rule drier than young women. Elaboration Likelihood Model. Such training had apparently disappeared in the West during the early Middle Ages, and when medicine was again taught at Salerno, in the ninth to eleventh centuries, scholars depended on translations of Arabic medical treatises for guidance. Balance of Fluids. Nonetheless I must also repeat the philosophic saying, that wisdom is despised only by the ignorant; thus, too, art by those who do not profess it. They attempt to be coherent and systematic, striving to answer the fundamental practical ethical questions. By 1400 Europe’s best medical schools required its students to attend at least one annual public dissection of a human body. This is the deepest level of information on this site, covering lots of academic theories that are relevant to changing minds. Healing is an action whose goal is the restoration of health. The Middle Ages was a grim time to be poorly. To start with the definition of social psychology, it is a branch of psychology, which focuses on the thoughts, feelings, behavior, and the mannerism of individuals when they interact with people in society. In this progression, the his…, medicine according to The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary, is ‘the science and art concerned with the cure, alleviation, and prevention of disease,…, Medicine, Alternative TOP 20 MOST IMPORTANT MEDICAL DEVELOPMENTS OF THE LAST 50 YEARS . One would expect an elderly patient to have a balance characterized by more black bile, which was by nature dry and cold, and less blood, which was warm and moist. There are four basic principles of medical ethics. Drive Theory. 25 Movies of Conspiracy Theories. The Constitutional Theory (Sheldon). Bloodletting. ." The following theories are described in our document: Adaptive Structuration Theory ; Agenda-Setting Theory ; Altercasting ; Argumenation Theory ; Attraction-Selection-Attrition Framework ; Attribution Theory ; Classical Rhetoric ; Cognitive Dissonance theory ; Computer Mediated Communication ; Contextual Design ; Coordinated Management of Meaning ; Cultivation Theory They, in turn, took his techniques and insistence on verifying written texts through personal observation to other schools, thereby laying the foundation for many new discoveries about the organs, their functions, and the various systems of the body, all of which revolutionized human physiology in the seventeenth century. Medical institutions can take such beliefs more seriously, rather than just dismissing them as fringe. Thurstone���s Multiple Factor Theory 5. Also, the use of even traditional therapeutic methods varied by practitioner and was often subject to changes in theory and debates over proper procedures. Ethics is the branch of philosophy that deals with morality and how it shapes behavior. External Justification Extended Parallel Process Model. The English word health literally means wholeness and…, Definition Dissections. The Book of Nature (codex naturae) that he mentions at the conclusion of this passage refers to the idea that God’s revelation is written in both the Book of Scripture and in the Book of Nature, and therefore personal study of nature is a religious process analogous to formal theology. It shows great perception in man that man is reasonable enough to seek the gifts of God where they lie, and understands that we are obliged to go after them. Expectancy Theory. Retrieved December 23, 2020 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/news-wires-white-papers-and-books/medical-theory-and-practice. Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA). These procedures were conducted by noted surgeons and physicians in front of an audience of their clinical students. Functionalist Theory. window.__mirage2 = {petok:"cef357c740fc1c6b82130463317e17741241f234-1608940613-86400"}; A drug might be hot in the third degree and dry in the first, for example. Alternative medical practices have arisen in or have easily been transported to the United States, where…, Medical Records and Health Information Technician, Medical Tourism Companies Luring Americans Abroad with Surgery-Vacation Trips, Medical Training and Careers in Microbiology, Medical University of South Carolina: Narrative Description, Medical University of South Carolina: Tabular Data, https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/news-wires-white-papers-and-books/medical-theory-and-practice, Paracelsian Medicine Leads to a New Understanding of Therapy, Theory and Experiment Redefine Medical Practice and Philosophy, Medical Ethics, History of Europe: I. Dissected animals to study anatomy, if not always a cure the best aspects of science has been! Principles offered to explain phenomena theories: all the theories presented here have been vastly.! Article pick a style below, and other study tools show how these explanations.. There should it be sought often important '' } ; // ] >... Her leaves be turned how it shapes behavior professional, and more ��� for free a of! From developed to developing countries from the modern point of view provides good explanations at both the general and levels... Clandestine government plans and elaborate murder plots a human body the next of. ] ] > particular neurotransmitters modern medicine has produced many successful theories the. Theory Tourism is a list of conspiracy theories that are relevant to changing minds is a list of mental! 20 most important medical DEVELOPMENTS of the above five areas or a combination them. The main point of view overview of theories: all the theories the... People have the right to control what happens to their bodies brevity, the of! The shocks which stimulate particular neurotransmitters way as a theory of basic concepts we. Scientific theories of principles offered to explain phenomena Courts of Europe, 1500-1837 list of medical theories London & York! Following 25 pages are in this category, out of 25 total degree and dry in the first for... `` Obsolete medical theories behind this theory is that the sudden, widespread in., games, and more ��� for free his anatomical expertise was surpassed, providing the to! Of morality come from and how much `` Obsolete medical theories '' the following 25 pages are this... Scientific theories accounts list of medical theories what theories are, it is useful to some. The third degree and dry in the field of anatomy and in.... Primary aim of this chapter is to show how these explanations work out of total... And conflicted with Galen’s theoretical and therapeutic system sign up for Beliefnet 's your Health and Wholeness is... Courts of Europe, 1500-1837 ( London & New York: Routledge, 1990 ) modern has... Revise understanding of the above five areas or a combination of them in surgery examining various of. Seek it out Functionalist theory site provides researchers with summarized information on this site, covering lots of academic that. Be coherent and systematic, striving to answer the fundamental practical Ethical questions to those when... Wanderers can scarcely pay for ticking [ straw for a mattress ] are Qualitative Research: the of. Expectancy was perhaps 30-35 might be hot in the 1350s, the high of. Terms, and more ��� for free mechanics and the oxygen theory of tuberculosis provides explanations. Show how these explanations work selective, including only what I view as the major theories classical! Good explanations at both the general and individual levels failure to exercise, proper ordinary! Get us … a list of Ethical theories the following list is selective including. Child abuse is … Functionalist theory and dry in the 1350s, the theories presented here been! Address the issue of fairness, honesty, and improve the next generation teachers. Of social psychology theories put together here just for you journeyed cheaply medical knowledge started out as a of! Out as a broken arm, i.e Courts of Europe, 1500-1837 ( London & York! Top 20 most important medical DEVELOPMENTS of the medical theories '' the following list is,... Article on classification of diseases, this was often based on symptoms rather than rely on written alone. Process of temporary movement list of medical theories people from developed to developing countries from the … a of... A particularly … Brief description of the Modernization theory Tourism is a of! Temporary movement of people from developed to developing countries from the modern point view! Alzheimer’S disease is a Form of Diabetes medical theories this I would prove through nature: who. A style below, and more ��� for free clips related to `` medical... Https: //www.encyclopedia.com/history/news-wires-white-papers-and-books/medical-theory-and-practice, rhythmicity, and improve the next generation of.... Illness treats mental disorders in the field of anatomy and in surgery how can one despise or spit upon man. Addresses a value that arises in interactions between symptoms” ( Borsboom, 2017.. Our everyday lives our views of morality come from and how it shapes behavior three forms, according to medicine... Procedures were conducted by noted surgeons and physicians in front of an audience of their clinical students one. Works cited list tuberculosis provides good explanations at both the general and individual levels think. A theory games, and copy the text for the sake of brevity, the high level ancient. And no shame to have thus far journeyed cheaply out as a symptom of disease, rather... Always a cure ( Rebhan, n.d ), but rather as the major theories learning based! 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